Classifications: benzodiazepine; anxiolytic; sedative-hypnotic; Therapeutic: sedative-hypnotic; antianxiety
Pregnancy Category: X
Controlled Substance: Schedule IV
0.125 mg, 0.25 mg tablets
Benzodiazepine derivative with hypnotic effects with fewer residual daytime effects. Its blockade of cortical and limbic
arousal results in hypnotic activity.
Drug-induced effects on sleep include decreased sleep latency and number of nocturnal awakenings, decreased total nocturnal
wake time, and increased duration of sleep.
Short-term management of insomnia characterized by difficulty in falling asleep, frequent wakeful periods. Following long-term
use, tolerance or adaptation may develop.
Hypersensitivity to triazolam and benzodiazepines; pregnancy (category X), lactation; ethanol intoxication; suicidal ideations;
concurrent administration with the following medications that impair cytochrome P450 3A (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole,
Depression; bipolar disorder; dementia; psychosis; myasthenia gravis; Parkinson's disease; older adults and debilitated
patients; patients with suicidal tendency; impaired kidney or liver function; chronic pulmonary insufficiency; sleep apnea.
Route & Dosage
Adult: PO 0.1250.25 mg h.s. (max: 0.5 mg/d)
Geriatric: PO 0.06250.125 mg h.s.
- Give immediately before bed; onset of drug action is rapid.
- Do not exceed recommended doses.
- Store at 15°30° C (59°86° F).
Adverse Effects (≥1%)CNS: Drowsiness,
light-headedness, headache, dizziness, ataxia, visual disturbances, confusional states, memory impairment, "rebound insomnia," anterograde amnesia,
paradoxical reactions, minor changes in EEG patterns. GI:
Nausea, vomiting, constipation
, cns depressants
, nefazodone, benzodiazepines
increases triazolam plasma
levels, thus increasing its toxicity
; may decrease antiparkinsonism effects of levodopa. Herbal: Kava, valerian
may potentiate sedation. St. John's wort
may decrease efficacy
. Food: Grapefruit juice
(>1 qt/d) may increase plasma
concentrations and adverse effects.
Readily from GI tract. Onset:
1530 min. Peak:
12 h. Duration:
68 h. Distribution:
Crosses placenta; distributed into breast milk. Elimination:
In urine. Half-Life:
Assessment & Drug Effects
- Be aware that signs of developing tolerance or adaptation (with long-term use) include increased daytime anxiety, increased
wakefulness during last one third of the night.
- Lab tests: Obtain periodic blood counts, urinalysis, and blood chemistries during long-term use.
- Do not use with addiction-prone patients (drug addicts, alcoholics) unless careful surveillance by health personnel is available.
Habituation and dependence can occur.
- Evaluate smoking habit. As with other benzodiazepines, smoking may decrease hypnotic effects.
- Monitor for symptoms of overdosage: Slurred speech, somnolence, confusion, impaired coordination, and coma.
Patient & Family Education
- Do not drive or engage in potentially hazardous activities until response to drug is known.
- Avoid use of alcohol or other CNS depressants while on this drug; they may increase sedative effects.
- Do not stop taking drug suddenly, especially if you are subject to seizures. Withdrawal symptoms may occur and range from
mild dysphoria to more serious symptoms (e.g., tremors, abdominal and muscle cramps, convulsions). Consult physician for
schedule to discontinue therapy.
- Do not increase dose without physician's advice because of toxic potential of drug.