| PLASMA PROTEIN FRACTION
Plasmanate, Plasma-Plex, Protenate
Classifications: plasma volume expander; Therapeutic: plasma volume expander; albumin
Prototype: Normal serum albumin, human
Pregnancy Category: C
Provides plasma proteins that increase colloidal osmotic pressure within the intravascular compartment equal to human plasma;
it shifts water from the extravascular tissues back into the intravascular space, thus expanding plasma volume. No coagulation
factors or gamma globulins are provided.
It is used to maintain cardiac output by expanding plasma volume in the treatment of shock due to various causes. Does not
require cross matching.
Emergency treatment of hypovolemic shock due to burns, trauma, surgery, infections; temporary measure in treatment of blood
loss when whole blood is not available; to replenish plasma protein in patients with hypoproteinemia (if sodium restriction
is not a problem).
Hypersensitivity to albumin; severe anemia; cardiac failure; patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery; pregnancy
Patients with low cardiac reserve; absence of albumin deficiency; liver or kidney failure.
Route & Dosage
|Plasma Volume Expansion
Adult: IV 250500 mL at a maximum rate of 10 mL/min
Child: IV 6.630 mL/kg at a rate of 510 mL/min
Adult: IV 11.5 L/d infused at a rate not to exceed 58 mL/min
- Do not use solutions that show a sediment or appear turbid.
- Do not use solutions that have been frozen.
PREPARE: IV Infusion: Give undiluted. Once container is opened, solution should be used within 4 h because it contains no preservatives. Discard
ADMINISTER: IV Infusion: Rate of infusion and volume of total dose will depend on patient's age, diagnosis, degree of venous and pulmonary congestion,
Hct, and Hgb determinations. As with any oncotically active solution, infusion rate should be relatively slow. Range may
vary from 110 mL/min.
INCOMPATIBILITIES Protein hydrolysates or solutions containing alcohol.
Adverse Effects (≥1%)GI:
Nausea, vomiting, hypersalivation, headache. Body as a Whole:
Tingling, chills, fever, cyanosis, chest tightness, backache
, urticaria, erythema
, shock (systemic anaphylaxis),
circulatory overload, pulmonary
Assessment & Drug Effects
- Monitor vital signs (BP and pulse). Frequency depends on patient's condition. Flow rate adjustments are made according to
clinical response and BP. Slow or stop infusion if patient suddenly becomes hypotensive.
- Report a widening pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic); it correlates with increase in cardiac output.
- Report changes in I&O ratio and pattern.
- Observe patient closely during and after infusion for signs of hypervolemia or circulatory overload (see Appendix F). Report
these symptoms immediately to physician.
- Make careful observations of patient who has had either injury or surgery in order to detect bleeding points that failed
to bleed at lower BP.