Classifications: cerebral stimulant; anorexiant; amphetamine; Therapeutic: cerebral stimulant; anorexiant
Prototype: Amphetamine sulfate
Pregnancy Category: C
Controlled Substance: Schedule II
5 mg tablets; 5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg long-acting tablets
Sympathomimetic amine chemically related to amphetamine. CNS stimulant actions approximately equal to those of amphetamine,
but accompanied by less peripheral activity. However, larger doses produce increased cardiac output, possibly reflex slowing
of heart rate, and sustained increase in BP, chiefly by cardiac stimulation.
CNS stimulant actions approximately equal to those of amphetamine, but accompanied by less peripheral activity.
Short-term adjunct in management of exogenous obesity, as adjunctive therapy in attention deficit disorder (ADD), narcolepsy,
epilepsy, and postencephalitic parkinsonism, and in treatment of certain depressive reactions, especially when characterized
by apathy and psychomotor retardation.
During pregnancy, especially first trimester (category C), lactation; as anorexiant in children <12 y; patients receiving
MAO INIBITORS; arteriosclerotic parkinsonism.
Mild hypertension; psychopathic personalities; hyperexcitability states; history of suicide attempts; older adult or debilitated
Route & Dosage
|Attention Deficit Disorder
Child (≥6 y): PO 2.55 mg 12 times/d, may increase by 5 mg at weekly intervals up to 2025 mg/d
Adult: PO 2.55 mg 13 times/d 30 min before meals or 515 mg of long-acting form once/d
- Give early in the day to avoid insomnia, if possible.
- Ensure that long-acting tablets are not chewed or crushed; these need to be swallowed whole.
- Give 30 min before each meal when used for treatment of obesity. If insomnia results, advise patient to inform physician.
- Preserve in tight, light-resistant containers.
Adverse Effects (≥1%)CNS:
Restlessness, tremor, hyperreflexia, insomnia
, headache, nervousness, anxiety, dizziness, euphoria or dysphoria. CV:
Palpitation, arrhythmias, hypertension, hypotension, circulatory collapse. GI:
Dry mouth, unpleasant taste, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation
. Special Senses:
Increased intraocular pressure.
InteractionsDrug: Acetazolamide, sodium bicarbonate
decreases methamphetamine elimination; ammonium chloride, ascorbic acid
increases methamphetamine elimination; effects of both methamphetamine and barbiturates
may be antagonized; furazolidone
may increase BP effects of amphetamines
interaction may persist for several weeks after discontinuing furazolidone;
antagonizes antihypertensive effects of guanethidine; mao inhibitors
can cause hypertensive crisis (fatalities reported)do not administer amphetamines
during or within 14 d of administration of these drugs; phenothiazines
may inhibit mood elevating effects of amphetamines
; tricyclic antidepressants
enhance methamphetamine effects because they increase norepinephrine release; beta-adrenergic agonists
increase adverse cardiovascular effects of amphetamines
Readily absorbed from the GI tract. Duration:
612 h. Distribution:
All tissues especially the CNS; excreted in breast milk. Metabolism:
In liver. Elimination:
Assessment & Drug Effects
- Monitor weight throughout period of therapy.
- Be alert for paradoxic increase in depression or agitation in depressed patients. Report immediately; drug should be withdrawn.
- Do not exceed duration of a few weeks for treatment of obesity.
Patient & Family Education
- Be alert for development of tolerance; happens readily, and prolonged use may lead to drug dependence. Abuse potential is
high. Methamphetamine is commonly known as "speed" or "crystal" among drug abusers.
- Withdrawal after prolonged use is frequently followed by lethargy that may persist for several weeks.
- Weigh every other day under standard conditions and maintain a record of weight loss.