Classifications: cholinergic agent; cholinesterase inhibitor; Therapeutic: cholinesterase inhibitor
Pregnancy Category: C
10 mg/mL injection
Indirect-acting cholinesterase inhibitor that acts as antidote to curariform drugs by displacing them from muscle cell receptor
sites, thus permitting resumption of normal transmission of neuromuscular impulses.
Acts as antidote to curariform drugs by displacing them from muscle cell receptor sites, thus permitting resumption of normal
transmission of neuromuscular impulses.
Differential diagnosis and as adjunct in evaluation of treatment requirements of myasthenia gravis. Not recommended for maintenance
therapy in myasthenia gravis because of its short duration of action.
To terminate paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, as an aid in diagnosing supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, and to evaluate function
of demand pacemakers.
Hypersensitivity to anticholinesterase agents; cholinesterase inhibitor toxicity; intestinal and urinary obstruction; pregnancy
(category C), lactation.
Sulfite hypersensitivity; bronchial asthma; cardiac arrhythmias; bradycardia; peptic ulcer disease; hypotension; patients
Route & Dosage
|Myasthenia Gravis Diagnosis
Adult: IV Prepare 10 mg in a syringe; inject 2 mg over 1530 sec, if no reaction after 45 sec, inject the remaining 8 mg, may repeat
test after 30 min IM Inject 10 mg, if cholinergic reaction occurs, retest after 30 min with 2 mg to rule out false-negative reaction
Child: IV ≤34 kg, 1 mg, if no response after 45 sec, dose may be titrated up to 5 mg IM 2 mg IV >34 kg, 2 mg, if no response after 45 sec, dose may be titrated up to 10 mg IM 5 mg
Infant: IM 0.51 mg
Evaluation of Myasthenia Treatment
Adult: IV 12 mg administered 1 h after last PO dose of anticholinesterase medication
- Note: Have antidote (atropine sulfate) immediately available and facilities for endotracheal intubation, tracheostomy, suction,
assisted respiration, and cardiac monitoring for treatment of cholinergic reaction.
PREPARE: Direct/Infusion: May be given undiluted or diluted in D5W or NS for infusion.
ADMINISTER: Direct: Inject 2 mg (adult & child >34 kg) or 1 mg (child ≤34 kg) over 1530 sec;
if no reaction after 45 sec, inject additional 8 mg (adult) or titrate up to a total of 8 mg additional (child >34 kg) or
titrate in 1 mg increments up to a total of 4 mg additional (child ≤34 kg),
may repeat test after 30 min. If cholinergic reaction (increased muscle weakness) is obtained after initial 1 or 2 mg, discontinue
test and give atropine IV (as ordered). IV Infusion: Infuse over 1 h.
- Note: Some clinicians recommend giving a 12 mg test dose of edrophonium to older adult patients, to those with history of
heart disease or who take digitalis, and possibly to all patients.
Adverse Effects (≥1%)Body as a Whole:
Severe adverse effects uncommon with usual doses. CNS:
Weakness, muscle cramps, dysphoria, fasciculations, incoordination, dysarthria, dysphagia, convulsions, respiratory paralysis
Bradycardia, irregular pulse, hypotension, pulmonary
edema. Special Senses:
Miosis, blurred vision, diplopia
, lacrimation. GI: Diarrhea
, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, excessive salivation. Respiratory:
Increased bronchial secretions, bronchospasm, laryngospasm
Excessive sweating, urinary frequency, incontinence.
InteractionsDrug: Procainamide, quinidine
may antagonize the effects of edrophonium; digitalis glycosides
increase the sensitivity of the heart to edrophonium; succinylcholine, decamethonium
may prolong neuromuscular blockade.
3060 sec IV
; 210 min IM. Duration:
510 min IV
; 530 min IM.
Assessment & Drug Effects
- Monitor vital signs. Observe for signs of respiratory distress. Patients >50 y are particularly likely to develop bradycardia,
hypotension, and cardiac arrest.
- Edrophonium test for myasthenia gravis: All cholinesterase inhibitors (anticholinesterases) should be discontinued for at
least 8 h before test. Positive response to edrophonium test consists of brief improvement in muscle strength unaccompanied
by lingual or skeletal muscle fasciculations.
- Evaluation of myasthenic treatment: Myasthenic response (immediate subjective improvement with increased muscle strength, absence of fasciculations; generally indicates that patient
requires larger dose of anticholinesterase agent or longer-acting drug); Cholinergic response [muscarinic adverse effects (lacrimation, diaphoresis, salivation, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting; accompanied
by decrease in muscle strength; usually indicates over-treatment with cholinesterase inhibitor)]; Adequate response [no change in muscle strength; fasciculations may be present or absent; minimal cholinergic adverse effects (observed in
patients at or near optimal dosage level)].