Classifications: anxiolytic; Therapeutic: antianxiety
Pregnancy Category: B
5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg tablets
An anxiolytic that focuses mainly on the brain D2-dopamine receptors. It has agonist effects on presynaptic dopamine receptors and also a high affinity for serotonin (5-HT1A) receptors.
Antianxiety effect is due to serotonin reuptake inhibition and agonist effects on dopamine receptors of the brain.
Management of anxiety disorders and for short-term treatment of generalized anxiety.
Adjuvant for nicotine withdrawal, premenstrual syndrome.
Concomitant use of alcohol and buspirone; concomitant use of MAOI therapy. Safety during labor and delivery, lactation,
or in children <18 y is not established.
Moderate to severe renal or hepatic impairment, pregnancy (category B).
Route & Dosage
Adult: PO 7.515 mg/d in divided doses, may increase by 5 mg/d q23d as needed (max: 60 mg/d)
Geriatric: PO 5 mg b.i.d., may increase to max 60 mg/d
- Give with food to decrease nausea.
- Give 8 h before or after drinking grapefruit juice.
- Store at 15°30° C (59°86° F) in tightly closed container unless otherwise directed.
Adverse Effects (≥1%)CNS:
Numbness, paresthesia, tremors, dizziness, headache,
light-headedness, dream disturbances, decreased concentration, excitement, mood changes. CV:
Tachycardia, palpitation. Special Senses:
Blurred vision. GI: Nausea,
vomiting, dry mouth, abdominal/gastric distress, diarrhea, constipation
Urinary frequency, hesitancy. Musculoskeletal:
Hyperventilation, shortness of breath. Skin:
Rash, edema, pruritus, flushing, easy bruising, hair loss, dry skin. Other: Fatigue
Diagnostic Test Interference
Buspirone may increase serum concentrations of hepatic aminotransferases (ALT, AST).
May cause hypertension with mao inhibitors
possible increase in liver transaminases; increased haloperidol
serum levels. Food: Grapefruit juice
may increase drug levels. Herbal: St. John's wort
may increase drug levels.
Readily from GI tract, undergoes first pass metabolism. Onset:
57 d. Peak:
1 h. Metabolism:
In liver. Elimination:
3063% in urine as metabolites within 24 h. Half-Life:
Assessment & Drug Effects
- Monitor for therapeutic effectiveness. Desired response may begin within 710 d; however, optimal results take 34
wk. Reinforce the importance of continuing treatment to patient.
- Benzodiazepines or sedative-hypnotic drugs are withdrawn gradually before buspirone therapy is started. Observe patient for
rebound symptoms, which may occur over varying time periods during first phase of treatment.
- Monitor for and report dystonia, motor restlessness, and involuntary repetitious movement of facial or cervical muscle.
- Observe for and report swollen ankles, decreased urinary output, changes in voiding pattern, jaundice, itching, nausea, or
Patient & Family Education
- Take exactly as prescribed: Specifically, do not omit, skip, increase or decrease doses without advice of the physician.
- Report any of the following immediately: Involuntary, repetitive movements of face or neck; weakness, nervousness, nightmares,
headache, or blurred vision; depression or thoughts of suicide.
- Do not use OTC drugs without advice of the physician while taking buspirone.
- Note: Adverse effects subside during continued therapy with or without dosage adjustment. Do not discontinue therapy.
- Do not drive or engage in other potentially hazardous activities until response to drug is known.
- Alert physician if you become pregnant; buspirone must be discontinued during pregnancy.
- Discuss limits of alcohol intake with physician; cautious use is generally advised.
- Note: It is important to understand the planned schedule for changes in doses and intervals to ensure low incidence of withdrawal
or rebound symptoms when therapy is discontinued.