LATANOPROST

LATANOPROST
(la-tan'o-prost)
Xalatan
Classifications: eye preparation; prostaglandin;
Therapeutic: prostaglandin

Pregnancy Category: C

Availability

0.005% solution

Action

Prostaglandin analog that is thought to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) by increasing the outflow of aqueous humor.

Therapeutic Effect

Reduces elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma.

Uses

Treatment of open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP).

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to latanoprost or another component in the solution; pregnancy (category C); lactation; intraocular infection; conjunctivitis.

Cautious Use

Lactation; active intraocular inflammation such as: iritis or uveitis; patients at risk for macular edema; hepatic or renal impairment. Safety and effectiveness in children are not established.

Route & Dosage

Glaucoma
Adult: Ophthalmic 1 drop in affected eye(s) q.d. in evening

Administration

Installation
  • Ensure that contact lenses are removed prior to installation and not reinserted for 15 min after installation.
  • Apply only to affected eye(s). Ensure that only one drop is instilled.
  • Do not allow tip of dropper to touch eye.
  • Wait at least 5 min before/after instillation of other eye drops.
  • Refrigerate at 2°–8° C (36°–46° F). Protect from light.

Adverse Effects (≥1%)

Body as a Whole: Headaches, asthenia, flu-like symptoms. GI: Abnormal liver function tests. Skin: Rash. Special Senses: Conjunctival hyperemia, growth of eyelashes, ocular pruritus, ocular dryness, visual disturbance, ocular burning, foreign body sensation, eye pain, pigmentation of the periocular skin, blepharitis, cataract, superficial punctate keratitis, eyelid erythema, ocular irritation, and eyelash darkening, eye discharge, tearing, photophobia, allergic conjunctivitis, increases in iris pigmentation (brown pigment), conjunctival edema.

Interactions

Drug: Precipitation may occur if mixed with eye drops containing thimerosal; space other eye preparations at least 5 min apart.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Absorbed through the cornea. Onset: 3–4 h. Peak IOP reduction: 8–12 h. Distribution: Minimal systemic distribution. Metabolism: Hydrolyzed in aqueous humor to active form. Elimination: Renally excreted. Half-Life: 17 min.

Nursing Implications

Assessment & Drug Effects

  • Withhold eye drops and notify physician if acute intraocular inflammation (iritis or uveitis) or external eye inflammation are noted.
  • Note that increased pigmentation of the iris and eyelid, and additional growth of eyelashes on the treated eye are adverse effects that may develop gradually over months to years.

Patient & Family Education

  • Contact physician immediately if any ocular reaction occurs, especially conjunctivitis and lid reactions.
  • Note: Increased pigmentation of the iris and eyelid, and additional growth of eyelashes on the treated eye, are possible adverse effects of this drug. Persons with light colored eyes receiving treatment to one eye may develop a darker eye.

Common adverse effects in italic, life-threatening effects underlined; generic names in bold; classifications in SMALL CAPS; Canadian drug name; Prototype drug

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