Amoxil, Apo-Amoxi , Larotid, Novamoxin, Trimox, DisperMox
Classifications: antibiotic; aminopenicillin; Therapeutic:antibiotic
Pregnancy Category: B
125 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg tablets; 250 mg, 500 mg capsules; 50 mg/mL, 125 mg/5 mL, 250 mg/5 mL powder for suspension; 200 mg, 400 mg, 600 mg dispersible tablets
Broad-spectrum semisynthetic aminopenicillin and analog of ampicillin. Like other penicillins, amoxicillin inhibits the
final stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the
cell wall of rapidly multiplying bacteria. It results in bacterial cell lysis and death.
Active against both aerobic gram-positive and aerobic gram-negative bacteria.
Infections of ear, nose, throat, GU tract, skin, and soft tissue caused by susceptible bacteria. Also used in uncomplicated
Hypersensitivity to penicillins; infectious mononucleosis.
History of or suspected atopy or allergy (hives, eczema, hay fever, asthma); history of cephalosporin or carbapenem hypersensitivity;
colitis, dialysis, diarrhea, GI disease; viral infection, syphilis, renal impairment or failure, diabetes mellitus, leukemia,
pregnancy (category B); infants, neonates.
Route & Dosage
|Mild to Moderate Infections
Adult: PO 250500 mg q8h
Child: PO 2550 mg/kg/d (max: 6080 mg/kg/d) divided q8h or 200400 mg q12h
Adult: PO 3 g as single dose with 1 g probenecid
Child (≥2 y): PO 50 mg/kg as single dose with probenecid 25 mg/kg
- Ensure that chewable tablets are chewed or crushed before being swallowed with a liquid.
- Place reconstituted pediatric drops directly on child's tongue or add to formula, milk, fruit juice, water, ginger ale,
or other soft drink. Have child drink all the prepared dose promptly.
- Store in tightly covered containers at 15°30° C (59°86° F) unless otherwise directed. Reconstituted
oral suspensions are stable for 7 d at room temperature.
Adverse Effects (≥1%)Body as a Whole:
As with other penicillins. Hypersensitivity (rash, anaphylaxis
), superinfections. GI: Diarrhea
, nausea, vomiting, pseudo-membranous colitis
, eosinophilia, agranulocytosis
Pruritus, urticaria, or other skin eruptions. Special Senses:
may inhibit activity of amoxicillin; probenecid
prolongs the activity of amoxicillin.
Nearly complete absorption. Peak:
12 h. Distribution:
Diffuses into most tissues and body fluids
, except synovial fluid and CSF (unless meninges are inflamed); crosses placenta;
distributed into breast milk in small amounts. Metabolism:
In liver. Elimination:
60% of dose in urine in 68 h. Half-Life:
Assessment & Drug Effects
- Determine previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, and other allergens prior to therapy.
- Lab tests: Baseline C&S tests prior to initiation of therapy, start drug pending results; periodic assessments of renal,
hepatic, and hematologic functions should be made during prolonged therapy.
- Monitor for S&S of an urticarial rash (usually occurring within a few days after start of drug) suggestive of a hypersensitivity
reaction. If it occurs, look for other signs of hypersensitivity (fever, wheezing, generalized itching, dyspnea), and report
to physician immediately.
- Report onset of generalized, erythematous, maculopapular rash (ampicillin rash) to physician. Ampicillin rash is not due
to hypersensitivity; however, hypersensitivity should be ruled out.
- Closely monitor diarrhea to rule out pseudomembranous colitis.
Patient & Family Education
- Take drug around the clock, do not miss a dose, and continue therapy until all medication is taken, unless otherwise directed
- Report onset of diarrhea and other possible symptoms of superinfection to physician (see Appendix F).